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== Instalación de la BTS y sus antenas ==
 
== Instalación de la BTS y sus antenas ==
  
* El siguiente paso es comenzar a ensamblar los equipos en la torre, para lo que se utilizarán las piezas del hardware de instalación (tornillo en U), abrazaderas y alambre recocido. Para ensamblar la Radio Base (BTS) se utilizan tornillos en U y una base de metal que se atornilla a la caja. La BTS esta está diseñada para soportar las condiciones a la intemperie.
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* The next step is to fix the equipment on the tower, using the appropriate mounting hardware (u-bolts, hose clamps, wire, etc). To mount the BTS, use the U-bolts and mounting plate provided with the equipment. The BTS and mounting hardware is designed to be outside in the elements.
  
 
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Revision as of 22:14, 30 March 2016

Other languages:

Hardware installation



Torre y/o mástil

As previously mentioned, before installing the transmission equipment or hardware of the network, it is first necessary to have a mast or tower, properly grounded and anchored, in place. It is also necessary to have an electrical connection for the exclusive use of the community cellular site. And finally, in order to do long-distance calling, there must Internet. We recommend a 1mbps symetric connection for a standard site.

Once the community has confirmed that these above-mentioned conditions have been met, the installation of the cellular equipment can proceed. We will now describe the steps to be taken in order to install the cellular hardware. For a list and description of the equipment to be installed go to the section Materials.

  • El primer paso es verificar que la torre o mástil están bien sujetos, y que es seguro que el equipo técnico suba a tales instalaciones. Si los tensores están flojos, es necesario tensarlos. Los tensores tendrán que ser los apropiados para mantener los cables guías fijos en su lugar. Hay que asegurarse que la torre y/o los tensores no están oxidados porque puede ser peligroso. En este caso, se tienen que reemplazar las partes oxidadas.
Abrazaderas-tensores.JPG Torre-tennsores.JPG
  • Una vez que se el equipo verifica las condiciones de seguridad para subir a la torre, se colocará el arnés para subir a esta. Si se trata de un mástil, es más seguro utilizar una escalera. En el caso de los mástiles que utilizamos en Rhizomatica, estos tienen una visagra que permite que los equipos se ensamblen en el piso y se pueda alzar el mástil, asegurando sus respectivos tensores.

Arnes.JPG


Instalación de la BTS y sus antenas

  • The next step is to fix the equipment on the tower, using the appropriate mounting hardware (u-bolts, hose clamps, wire, etc). To mount the BTS, use the U-bolts and mounting plate provided with the equipment. The BTS and mounting hardware is designed to be outside in the elements.
Bts-metal.JPG
Bts-abrazadera.JPG
  • Hay que ensamblar la fuente de poder de la Radio Base (BTS). Ésta se sujeta a la estructura (torre o mástil) con abrazaderas. La fuente de poder esta fabricada para soportar las condiciones a la interperie, sin embargo, la clavija que se conectará a la electricidad debe ser protegida para evitar que el agua entre en las conexiones causando un corto circuito. En el otro extremo se conecta con un conector a prueba de agua que se conecta a la BTS.

The power supply unit provided with the BTS comes with the above-mentioned outdoor plastic connecotr, but this must be soldered onto the correct cable of the power supply unit in a particular way.

Power-supplieHLG-150H 1.jpg

To properly connect the connector it is important to distinguish the polarity of the cables and the terminals of the connector itself. The red cable must be soldered to the positive terminal (+) and the black cable to the negative terminal (-) as indicated in the diagram below. Please note that the diagram's perspective is looking at the internal or back part of the connector where the soldering pins are located:

Cable-rojo-negro.jpg Waterproof-connector.jpg Pin-positivo-negativo.jpg Waterproof-interior-pins.png Pins-cable.jpg

Once the connector has been soldered to the power supply unit, a standard AC electrical plug can be installed on the other side. Use the green cable to your ground pin and the other two wires can be installed to the phase or positive pins.

Clavija.jog.jpg

  • En ciertas ocasiones, se coloca un gabinete para colocar algunas fuentes de poder y conexiones adentro con el propósito de proteger las conexiones de las inclemencias del clima, como la lluvia. Estos gabinetes se sujetan a la estructura (torre o mástil) a través de una pieza metálica llamada unicanal y abrazaderas.
DSC 0084.JPG Gabinete-unicanal.JPG
  • Una vez que se la BTS ha quedado asegurada a la estructura (torre o mástil), hay que asegurar las antenas que irán conectadas a la BTS. Cuando se conectan antenas direccionales, estas se sujetan directamente a la estructura, ya que se trata de paneles. Sin embargo, cuando se instalan antenas omnidireccionales, es recomendable que estas estén separadas con al menos 1.5 metros a 3 metros entre sí, y de preferencia evitar que estén montadas en paralelo. Para lograrlo, se sujeta la antena receptora a la estructura (torre o mástil) arriba de la BTS y la antena emisora se monta en una brazo metálico sujeto a la estructura (torre o mástil) debajo de la BTS. Se recomienda utilizar el brazo para evitar que la antena emisora propague sus ondas y estas se vean afectadas por la polaridad de la estructura (torre o mástil).

Las antenas receptoras se sujetan con su respectivo hardware de montaje (perno o tornillo en U) a la estructura (torre o mástil).

Abrazadera-ant.JPG
Antena-abrazadera.JPG

El brazo metálico se sujeta a la estructura con su hardware de montaje.

Brazo-metalico.JPG
Abrazedra-brazo.JPG

En esta fotografía se puede apreciar la distancia entre la antena receptora, la BTS y el brazo metálico al cual se sujetará la antena emisora.

Antena-emisora-bts.JPG

La antena transmisora se asegura al brazo metálico con su respectivo hardware de montaje.

Abrazadera-antena-brazo.JPG
Antena-brazo.JPG
  • Once the antennas and BTS are securely mounted they must be connected to one another with coaxial cable and N connectors (male). Ensure that the connectors are tight, in this case hand-tight. Do not use pliers or a wrench in order to screw in the coaxial cables. The strength of your hand is sufficient and ensures you won't damage the connectors. Once connected and screwed-in, cover the connector with electrical tape, then a layer of coaxial sealing tape, and then a final layer of electrical tape. Make sure to use electrical tape suitable for exterior use, such as Scotch Super 33 and wrap the connector from bottom (where the cable starts) to top (where the connector ends at the end of the cable). On the tower, the ground is bottom and the sky is top, if that helps to orient. Then do the same with the coaxial sealing tape, ensuring no air bubbles are present and that it is smooth, and then a final layer of electrical tape, starting from the bottom and ending at the top. This ensures water won't get into the connectors or cables.

The following links are videos that show how to wrap the electrical and coaxial tapes:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vwjEnyFSJEY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=57IQDnyk2LA

Bts-coax.JPG Electrical-tape-coax.JPG Tape-coax.JPG
  • With the GSM transmit and receive antennas installed, we can proceed to connec the GPS anenna to the BTS. This antenna generally has a magnet, which makes it easy to stick to any metallic surface. It is recommended to use a couple of zip ties to further secure the antenna to the mast or tower. The SMA connector then is screwed into the corresponding connector on the BTS.

Gps-antenna.jpg


Installation of wireless/WiFi link, when BTS and BSC are located in different places.

  • In cases where the BTS and BSC are not installed at the same site, it is necessary to create a data link between the two, which is most easily done using WiFi antennas. One WiFi antenna is placed on the tower or mast with the BTS and the other at the location of the BSC, ensuring line-of-site between the two WiFi antennas. Mounting hardware and instructions are included with the WiFi antennas.
Parrilla-wifi.JPG Wifi-abrazadera.JPG

Once the WiFi antenna is mounted securely on the mast or tower, an ethernet cable is connected to the port on the back of the antenna. This cable is connected to the Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) port on the adapter/power supply and the LAN port connected to the BTS via another ethernet cable. Make sure to close the plastic flap that protects the port on the back of the WiFi antenna.

Airgrid cable.png Airgrid weathercover.png

Ensure you do this with much care and don't force the connectors or connect the BTS to PoE instead of LAN. In order to connect the WiFi antennas to the power supply/adapter, measure the length, cut the cable appropriately, separate out the copper wires inside the cable, and connect the RJ-45 connector.

Cat5-ensamblado.JPG

For the end of the ethernet cable that will connect to the BTS, ensure that the water-tight sleeve is on the ethernet cable before attaching and crimping the RJ-45 connector.

Cable-ethernet-bts.JPG

Note: It is extremely important that the ethernet cables are connected to the correct ports on the power supply/adapter. BTS is connected to LAN and the WiFi antenna to PoE. If PoE is connected to the BTS, it can cause damage to the BTS. So NEVER connect BTS to PoE port directly.


Cat5.JPG Poe conecatar 2.png Poe adaptor translucido.png
  • If BTS and BSC are at the same location (same building), it isn't necessary to install WiFi antennas, as BTS and BSC can connect directly via an ethernet cable.


Installing the BSC (physical installation)

Bsc-front.jpg

  • Now we will connect the Base Station Controller (BSC). This computer controls the BTS, and the two can be connected via ethernet cable. The BSC is also connected to the Internet and the Administration computer via ethernet. The following diagram explains the set-up:

BSC-BTS-mislo lugar.png

  • Ethernet cables should be connected on the back of the BSC in the following way:
LAN 1 LAN 2 LAN 3 LAN 4
Internet BTS disponible Admin compu

Bsc-back.jpg

  • If a WiFi link has been installed, it's ethernet cable (LAN port on the power supply/adapter) should connect to the LAN 2 port on the back of the BSC. Again it is important the the PoE port only connect to the WiFi antenna and never to the BSC or BTS as this can damage them.
  • The community must supply a PC in order to use for the administration of the cellular network. This computer will generally sit next to the BSC as indicated above in the image.
  • Once everything is in place, it should be connected to an electricity source via a No-Break/UPS or at minimum a voltage regulator in order to suppress voltage spikes that might damage the equipment.

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